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Full text of "The Ráhat-us-sudúr wa áyat-us-surúr, being a history of the Saljúqs"

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in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/rhatussudrwayatuOOrava 



"E. J. W. GIBB MEMORIAL" 

SERIES. 



NEW SERIES 

VOL. II. 



VAuVja^^eJ i tin 'ft*' 

a\-TT 
THE 

RAHAT-US-SUDUR 

WA 

AYAT-US-SURUR 

BEING A HISTORY OF THE SALJUQS 

- BY 

MUHAMMAD IBN ALI 

IBN sulaymAn ar-rAwandi 



EDITED WITH NOTES, GLOSSARY AND INDICES 



BY 

MUHAMMAD IQBAL 

SOMETIME STUDENT IN THE ALIGARH COLLEGE (INDIA). 



PRINTED BY MESSRS E. J. BRILL OF LEYDEN 

FOR THE TRUSTEES OF THE "E. J. W. GIBB MEMORIAL" 

AND PUBLISHED BY MESSRS LUZAC & CO., 

46, GREAT RUSSELL STREET, LONDON, W.C. 

I92I 



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PREFACE. 

The present volume contains the text of a rare, and, so 
far as known, unique manuscript history of the great Saljuq 
dynasty of Persia by Muhammad b. c Ali b. Sulayman ar- 
Rawandi. The MS., written in large clear naskh and dated 
ist of Ramadan, 635 (April 17, 1238), formerly belonged to 
the late M. Schefer, and is now preserved in the Bibliotheque 
Nationale in Paris *). The work of ar-Rawandi became known 
to Persian students as early as 1865, when it was noticed 
byDe Jong and De Goeje in the Catalogus Codicum Orientalium 
Bibliothecae Academiae Lugduno Batavae (vol. Ill, p. 25) as 
forming the original of the Tawdrikh-i-dl-i- Saljuq compiled 
in Turkish during the reign of Sultan Murad II (142 1 — 145 1) 
in three parts 2 ), of which the second one is a translation 
of the present book. This fact was observed again by Prof. 
Houtsma in a short essay entitled " Ueber eine Tiirkische 
Chronik zitr GescliicJite der Selguqen Klein- Astens" which 
was read in the sixth International Congress of Orientalists 
held at Leyden in 1883 3 ). But the existence of the original 
work was not known until M. Schefer, the former owner 



1) Supplement Persan 1 3 1 4. See M. Blochet's Catalogue, Vol. I, 
pp. 276 — 7. A transcript of it was made by Mirza Kazira-Zada for Professor 
E. G. Browne in 1913 and by him placed at my disposal to work with. 

2) The third part, forming the Turkish translation of Ibn Bibi's Persian 
history of the Saljuqs of Asia Minor, was published by Prof. Houtsma in his 
Recneil de Textes relatifs a Vhistoire des Seljoucides (Vol. Ill), Leyden, 1902. 

3) See p. 371 of the Actes du Six feme Congres International des Oricn ta- 
lis tes (2 e partie, section I : Semitique). 



X PREFACE. 

of the unique MS., published (in 1886) an extract from it 
comprising the reign of Sultan Sanjar l ), in the *Nouveaux 
Melanges Orientaux* (Vol. 2, pp. 31 — 47) with French trans- 
lation and notes and a photograph of one page' (f. 62 b). A 
second extract comprising the history from the beginning 
until the death of Malikshah 2 ) was published by the same 
scholar in 1897 in his '•Supplement' to the Siasset Newtek 
of Nizam-ul-Mulk (pp. 70 — 114). A complete account of the 
MS. was given in the J. R. A. S. for 1902 (pp. 568 — 610 
and 849 — 887) by Professor E. G. Browne, who, having 
been struck by the value it derives from its antiquity and the 
authority of its contents 3 ), singled it out for publication. 

We are fortunate in possessing ample and authentic records 
of the history of the Great Saljuqs who ruled Persia from 
429 to 590 (1037 — IX 94)- This period of nearly 160 years 
can distinctly be divided into three parts for each of which 
we have excellent histories written by great scholars who 
were not only eye-witnesses of the events which they recorded 
but also took an active part in them. The first of these three 
epochs, which we may call the 'Empire Period', ends with 
the death of Malikshah in 485/1092. On this we possess the 
admirable history of Bayhaqi 4 ) together with the later Annals 
of Ibn-ul-Athir, which, though not contemporary, are based 
on excellent earlier authorities and are rich in details. The 
second or 'Middle Period' (or the 'Period of Sanjar', for he 
held supreme authority over the central ruling line of c Iraq) 
is brought to a close by his death in 552/1157, and is fully 
recorded both by Ibn-ul-Athir and the famous c Imad-ud-din 



1) See pp. 167 — 184 of the text. 

2) See pp. 86 — 136 of the text. 

3) Besides being a contemporary historical record it may possibly have been 
copied from the author's autograph and during his lifetime or at any rate 
soon after his death. 

4) Called c Tarikh-i-al-i-Saboktakeai' published in the Bibliotheca Indica 
series (Calcutta 1862). 



PREFACE. XI 

al-Katib al-Isfahani '). The third and the last period (552 — 
590/1157 — 1 194) is the 'Period of Decline and Fall' on which 
the present work is an incomparable authority, for the author 
himself and his uncles, as we shall see later on, were some 
of the favourite courtiers of Sultan Tughril the last of the 
Saljuqs, and so had easy access to first-hand information as 
to all that passed at the court 2 ). 

On the other hand our MS. is rich in linguistic interest, 
for on account of its age it has preserved archaic spellings 
and expressions. Besides, it contains a considerable number 
of verses by some of the greatest Persian poets like Anwari, 
Nizarni, Mujir-i-Baylaqani, Athir-i-Akhsikati, Hasan-i-Ghaz- 
nawi and Jamal-ud-din Isfahanf, most of whom were contem- 
poraries of our author. These verses, representing the oldest 
and the most authoritative text yet available, are of great 
value to us, considering how much the works of these ancient 
poets have been tampered with by unscrupulous or ignorant 
scribes so that it has become impossible to find a single 
line in two different MSS. without a number of variants. 

In editing this book I have tried, in general, to imitate 
the admirable edition of the Tcl rikh-i-Jahdn-Giishdy by the 
learned Mirza Muhammad Qazwini. In order to enable readers 
to verify historical statements and facts I have thought it 
proper always to give references to parallel passages in Ibn- 



1) His book is in fact the Arabic translation of the earlier Persian Chronicle 
by the Wazir Aniisharwan b. Khalid, and has been published in al-Bundari's Arabic 
recension, entitled I ^\ Zjg. , I ^S\ b>j, by Houtsma (Leyden 1889). 

2) Two more contemporary authorities for this period may briefly be men- 
tioned here. The first is the Zubdat-ut-tawarikh of Sadr-ud-din c Ali al-Husayni 
written in 622/1225 an ^ preserved in a unique MS in the British Museum 
(See Rieu's Supplement to the Arabic Cat. p. 342). It contains many details 
on the career of Sultan Tughril not to be found in the present book. The 
other is an appendix {dhayl') at the end of the Saljuq history in the JdmiHit- 
tawdrikh of Rashid-ud-din, by Abii Hamid Muhammad b. Ibrahim, who wrote 
it in 599/1202. It treats at greater length of the last ten years of TughriPs 
reign (580—590). 

b 



XII PREFACE. 

ul-Athir and al-Bundari, two of the greatest independent 
authorities on the history of the Saljuqs. I have frequently 
supplied dates either in foot-notes or in square brackets 
wherever they were wanting. In the text I have made use 
of parentheses ( ) in giving references to the passages of 
the Shdhndma (from which the author quotes so frequently) 
whenever two or more successive lines are cited. On no 
account should it be thought that I have added anything 
fresh from the Shdhndma not originally given in the text. 
I did realise the fact that this may cause confusion to some 
readers, but it was when a part of the book was already 
printed off and so I persisted in it for the sake of consistency. 

In the original MS. wherever the vowel-points are given, 
the fathah preceding alif and the kasrah preceding yd\ 
are written vertically (') e.g. JLu, ^-\.? CS-^ -> JV** etc - At 
first I intended to retain this mark, but on being convinced 
that it was no archaism soon gave it up. A few pages in the 
beginning of the book will be found marked with this ver- 
tical sign. Other inconsistencies of similar nature will be met 
with and I beg that they may be overlooked. 

In the glossary (pp. 489 — 516) I have included some words 
and phrases that are neither rare nor archaic, but in doing so 
I have kept in view the same consideration with which Dr. 
Nicholson prepared the glossary in his edition of the 
Tadhkirat-ul-Awliydy namely, "that it may some day be of 
service to the author of a scientific Persian lexicon in which 
the usage of every word will be illustrated by examples 
cited from trustworthy texts." I have also given frequent 
references to several other books of contemporary authorship 
wherever I could find the same word or phrase used in any 
of them. 

The disadvantages of editing a text from a single codex 
are well recognised by scholars, and I need not say that 
many of my difficulties have been left unsolved. Some pas- 



PREFACE. xiii 

sages and verses (especially those by Mujir-i-Baylaqani) still 
remain obscure in spite of the efforts of several competent 
scholars to find out their meaning. The Falilawiyydt or 
dialect verses on pp. 45, 46 and 460 are left entirely unex- 
plained, for it could not even be discovered what particular 
dialect they represent '). A few proper names remain uniden- 
tified, for the author introduces them in an abrupt manner, 
presuming apparently that they are known to his readers. 

I have made use of punctuation marks perhaps more 
frequently than was necessary, but I have often been com- 
pelled to do so by the author's jerky style of writing and 
abrupt statements. 

I have now to thank all those fellow students who have 
helped me in my work. My deepest gratitude is due to my 
learned friend Mirza Muhammad of Qazwin, now residing 
in Paris and well known to Persian students as editor of 
some of the most valuable books published in the "E. J. 
W. Gibb Memorial" series. He read through all the proof- 
sheets and took great pains in collating them with the 
original MS. in the Bibliotheque Nationale 2 ), and to his 
careful scrutiny the book owes many corrections and emen- 
dations. I also referred to him several of my difficulties 
which he did his best to solve, and of his remarks the 
more important ones will be found mentioned in his name 
throughout my notes. Acknowledgement is also due to my 
friend Mirza Dhabih-ullah Bihruz, Persian teacher in this 
University, who helped me through some of the doubtful 
passages and expressions, and to M. Blochet for very kindly- 
supplying me with photographs of figures and charts 
(pp. 438 — 9 and 451) from the original MS. 



1) M. Schefer asserts {Nouveaux Melanges Orientaux, Vol. II, pp. 7 and 13) 
that they are in Kurdish dialect, but does not explain their meaning. 

2) I myself also collated the transcript with the original MS in Paris be- 
fore copying it out for the press. 



XIV PREFACE 

The edition owes its appearance to Professor Edward 
G. Browne who first realised the importance of the book 
and marked it out for publication. I am indebted to him 
for his constant advice and help and for placing at my 
service some of his most precious books and manuscripts. 

MUHAMMAD IQBAL 

Cambridge 
August, 192 1. 



i. THE AUTHOR. 

All that we know about the author is to be gathered 
entirely from his own work. His full name was Abu Bakr 
Najm-ud-din Muhammad b. c Ali b. Sulayman b. Muhammad 
b. Ahmad b. al-Husayn b. Himmat ar-Rawandi. He belonged 
to a learned family of Rawand (a small town in the neigh- 
bourhood of Kashan), whose members were all scholars and 
professors. He lost his father before he could finish his 
education as a boy. He was eager to continue his studies, but 
had no means to do so, for a severe famine raged in Isfahan 
and the surrounding districts from the year 570/1174 — 5 on- 
wards. His maternal uncle Taj-ud-din Ahmad b. Muhammad 
b. c Ali ar-Rawandi took charge of him and became his 
guardian as well as his teacher. Taj-ud-din was a very learned 
man and held a professorship in a college founded at Ha- 
madan by Jamal-ud-din Ay Aba the Atdbek of Sultan Tughril. 
He was master of the science of jurisprudence, controversy, 
exegesis of the Qur'an, traditions and literature, both Arabic 
and Persian, and was the author of several books on these 
subjects. He was also a great calligraphist. Our author 
remained in his charge for ten years (apparently from 570/1 174 
to 580/1184), and during this period visited with him all the 
great cities of c Iraq and acquired proficiency in calligraphy 
(he learnt to write 70 different hands), book-binding and 
gilding [tadhhib). He also acquired the science of law and 
theology from some of the famous doctors of his time, like 
Fakhr-ud-din al-Balkhi, Baha-ud-din al-Yazdi and Safiyy-ud- 



XVI PREFACE. 

din al-Isfahani (who was professor in a college founded at 
Hamadan by the mother of Sultan Arsalan) ! ), and from them 
he obtained licenses to lecture. He sums up his great quali- 
fications in a few verses addressed to his patron Sultan 
Kaykhusraw of Rum as follows 2 ) : 




Sultan Tughril, the last of the Saljuqs (ruled 571 — 590/ 
1 175 — 1 194) was a great patron of learned men and was 
himself keen to acquire knowledge. In the year 577/1 181 
he was struck with a desire to learn calligraphy and em- 
ployed Zayn-ud-din Mahmiid b. Muhammad b. c Ali ar- 
Rawandi (another maternal uncle of our author) as his in- 
structor. When the Sultan became proficient in that art he 
undertook to make a copy of the Qur'an and gathered 
round him several gilders {miuiJiahhibdn) and illuminators to 
decorate his manuscript, each part [si-par a) of which cost 
100 western dinars (dindr-i-maghr ibi) 3 ). It was apparently 
on this occasion that the author was introduced by his 
uncle as an artist to the Sultan 4 ). Gradually he rose high in 
the Royal favour and we learn from him (p. 344) how on one 



1) See p. 300 of the text. 

2) P- 437, 11. 7—12. 

3) This copy of the Qur'an was never bound in one volume, for, as the 
author says (p. 44), a part of it went into the possession of c Ala-ud-din, lord 
of Maragha, another into that of Bektimiir, king of Akhlat, while a third was 
left with the gilders. 

4) For these details see pp. 39 — 44. 



PREFACE. XVII 

occasion he succeeded in getting from the Sultan a double 
compensation for the property of one of his friends whose 
house was plundered by the soldiers in a riot occuring at 
Hamadan in 583/1187. 

His uncles, all of whom were professional teachers, were 
held in high esteem by the Sultan and the nobility, who 
sent their sons to them for education and they took pride 
in being their pupils. The family had acquired so high a 
reputation for calligraphy that the KdsJii script (Khatt-i- 
Kdshiydn) became well recognised and famous. Zayn-ud-din 
was in addition a poet and wrote poetry in Persian as well 
as in Arabic. His style of writing was very popular in c Iraq 
and much imitated by scholars and poets '). 

Our author's connection with Sultan Tughril was finally 
severed in the year 585/1189, when he left c Iraq to accom- 
pany his uncle Zayn-ud-din to Mazandaran where the latter 
was sent by the Sultan as envoy to the king of that country 2 ). 
But the climate of that place did not suit him and he con- 
sequently fell ill and returned to his native town Rawand 
after a sojourn of six months. Here his suffering continued 
for another year. Soon after his return in 586/1190, the 
Sultan was seized by the rebellious Atdbek Qizil Arslan 
and imprisoned by him in the fortress of Dizmar (near 
Tabriz) 3 ). His captivity lasted for nearly two years, and 
although he regained his throne in 588/1192 after the Atdbek 
was murdered, he was unable to devote his attention to any 
peaceful pursuit and spent the next year and a half (588 — 590) 
in fruitless efforts to restore order in his kingdom. Finally 



1) I find that one of his works, a Persian translation of Sharaf-un-nubmv- 
wat (a book on hadith : see Hajji Khalifa, IV, 44) is still preserved in the 
library of Waliyy-ud-din, situated inside the mosque of Sultan Bayazkl in Con- 
stantinople (NO. 888 in the Catalogue of that library). See also an Arabic 
qasida composed by him in 577/1 181— 2 (pp. 52 — 4). 

2) See p. 357. 



XVIII PREFACE. 

he was killed in the memorable battle against the army of 
Khwarazmshah outside Ray on the 24th of Rabi c I, 590 
(19th of March, 1194), when the great Saljuq dynasty came 
to an end. 

Our author, after his return from Mazandaran (in 586), 
was forced to seek his livelihood elsewhere, and it was 
probably then that he became attached to the great and 
rich c Alawi family of Hamadan as teacher to the three sons 
of Amir Sayyid Fakhr-ud-din r Ala-ud-dawla c Arabshah, 
namely, Majd-ud-din Humayun, Fakhr-ud-din Khusrawshah, 
and c Imad-ud-din Mardanshah. Amir Sayyid c Arabshah, 
whose sister was married to Sultan Arslan, was the head 
of that family and was strangled by Sultan Tughril in 584 
(or early 585) for conspiring against him l ). The author spent 
nearly six years in that family, and the next two with a 
young pupil of his named Shihab-ud-din Ahmad b. Abi 
Mansur b. Muhammad b. Mansiir al-Bazzaz al-Qasani with 
whom he was very intimate. It was here that he was first 
struck with the idea of writing this book, and promised his 
young friend to mention his name therein as a token of grati- 
tude for his favours 2 ). He had also in mind to compile an 
anthology of poems by the then modern Persian poets, and 
he was inspired with this idea by the example of a certain 
Shams-ud-din Ahmad b. Minuchihr Shast Galleh (?) who was 
advised by Sayyid Ashraf the poet to learn by heart poems 
of modern poets like c Imadi, Anwari and Abu'l Faraj-i-Runi 
and to avoid the ancient ones like Sana'i, c Unsurf, Mu c izzi 
and Rudaki 3 ). It seems that finally he combined the two 
ideas together and produced the present book containing 
both history and anthology. 

He was unable to give effect to his intention for some 



i) See p. 352. The author composed an elegy on him (See pp. 353 — 5). 

2) See pp. 47—9- 

3) See pp. 57—8. 



PREFACE. XIX 

time, for there was no peace in the country during the 
years following the death of Sultan Tughril. c Iraq was occupied 
by the army of Khwarazmshah and people suffered immensely 
from the misrule and tyranny of his Turkish lieutenants. 
There was no respect left for any learning or morality; 
learned men were neglected , and valuable books were 
either destroyed or sold wholesale by these tyrant chiefs. 
Corruption prevailed and money was unjustly extorted from 
people by the myrmidons (mostly Rdfidis or Shi c ites) of the 
cruel governors. Of this state of misgovernment and disorder 
the author complains more than once x ). During these years, 
therefore, he led a life of retirement and seclusion, devoting 
his time to study. 

He began to write this book in 599/1202, and was engaged 
on it for the next two or three years. After completing it 
he was naturally anxious to dedicate it to someone of the 
Saljuq Sultans of Asia Minor (the history of whose fore- 
fathers it was) in the hope of earning a rich reward and 
renewing his former connection with the house of Saljuq. 
His attention was therefore directed to the then ruling Sultan 
Rukn-ud-din Sulaymanshah, who had usurped the throne 
from his elder brother Ghiyath-ud-din Kaykhusraw in 597/ 
1200 — 1, and ruled for four years until his death in 601/1204 — 5. 
The author says (p. 461) that he was about to dedicate his 
book to Rukn-ud-din when, on learning the fact that he 
was a usurper and that the real heir to the throne was his 
brother Kaykhusraw, he changed his mind and dedicated it 
to the latter. The truth, however, is that the first edition of 
this book was dedicated to Rukn-ud-din, but after his death 
in 601/1204 — 5 and Kaykhusraw's restoration to the throne, 
the author was compelled to change his dedication. He 
therefore seems to have revised the book and to have made 



:) See for instance pp. 30 — 38. 



XX PREFACE. 

the alterations necessary to fit it for presentation to the 
new Sultan. It appears however, that the revision was not 
very carefully done, for we sill find many traces of the 
former dedication to Rukn-ud-dfn Sulaymanshah. Note for 
example the following passages : 

(r-\ ^ n ^) A-oV e y. \Sf ^ <5jW\ jCj\ 

Here the author is evidently speaking of Sulaymanshah's 
campaign in Abkhaz, of which a description is given in the 
Turkish translation of Ibn-i-Bibi's history of the Saljuqs of 
Asia Minor (ed. Houtsma p. 57 et seqg.). 

c(y? ^ irr ^>) 

s*** »L-i jk\ i-J& * i$Vi j\ >WL a o c^^« (?) 

(V ^ ToA a*) 
In both these lines there is clearly an allusion to Sulayman 
the prophet and therefore he means Sulaymanshah. His name 
is also to be found written in red ink at the bottom of the 
chart on p. 45 1 of our book, which shows that the chart 
was prepared for presentation to Sulaymanshah. 

The author, however, tries to conceal this fact saying that 
the book was originally meant for Kaykhusraw, and that 
the conquest of Anatolia by this sovereign in 603/1206 — 7 
was considered to be the proper occasion to present the 
book to him '). He himself went to Quniya (Iconium) taking 
with him evidently the revised edition of his book, and 
perhaps presented it personally to the Sultan 2 ). This he did 
apparently at the encouragement and suggestion of a certain 
Jamal-ud-din Abu Bakr b. AbiVAla ar-Rumi, a merchant 



1) pp. 62—3. 

2) P . 64. 



PREFACE. XXI 

who happened to visit Hamadan, and spoke warmly of the 
generosity and other good qualities of Kaykhusraw to the 
people of that town '). 

The author tells us nothing more about himself after this. 

Of his other works besides the present one he mentions 
two as having been already written, namely, a book in 
condemnation of the Rdfidis and another on the principles 
of calligraphy [usul-i-Khatt) 2 ). He announces his intention 
of writing two more, to wit, a separate history of the reign 
of Sultan Tughril and a general history from the time of 
Adam down to his own time 3 ). None of these four works 
is known to me to exist. 

2. CONTENTS AND SOURCES OF THE BOOK. 

In the main, our book contains the history of the Great 
Saljuqs from the rise of the dynasty early in the 5th century 
of the hijra down to its fall in 590/1194. In a supplementary 
chapter (pp. 375 — 403) is given a detailed account of the 
events of the next five years, bringing the whole narrative 
down to the year 595/1199. The great historical interest of 
the book lies in its record for the years 555 — 595/1160 — 1199, 
covering the reigns of the last two sovereigns of the dynasty 
— Arslan and Tughril 4 ). The information supplied by the 
author on this period is at once first-hand and detailed. 
For the earlier part of the history, however, the book is 
hardly instructive — the reigns of the first twelve Sultans 
are dealt with in a singularly brief and uninteresting manner. 
Though written in a clear and simple style, typical of the 



1) pp. 461—2. 

2) p. 394 11. 23—4 and p. 445 1. 15. 

3) p. 44 11. 18—9 and p. 463 11. 3—6. 

4) pp. 281 — 403. The value of our book is still more enhanced when we 
consider the fact that almost nothing is to be found either in al-Bundari or 
Ibn-ul-Athir on the Saljuq history of this period. 



XXII PREFACE. 

pre-Mongol Persian writings, the beauty of the book is to 
a great extent marred by a large amount of extraneous 
matter — lengthy digressions, frequent citation (mostly inapt) 
of commonplace Arabic maxims (some of them being of 
considerable length) with their Persian translations, and a 
large quantity of poetry. According to my estimate the book 
would be reduced to a quarter of its present size if all its 
discursive matter were taken out. 

In all, the author cites 264 Arabic proverbs, almost all 
of them being borrowed without any acknowledgement from 
Tha c alibi's book the Kitdb-ul-Faraid zv'al-Qald'id l ). The 
total number of verses quoted is 2,799, of which 511 are 
by the author himself (in praise of his patron Kaykhusraw), 
144 by Anwarf, 196 by Sayyid Ashraf (Hasan Ghaznawi), 
JJ by Athir Akhsikati, 348 by Mujir Baylaqani, 81 by 
Jamal-ud-din Isfahani, 72 by c Imadi, 249 by Nizami (mostly 
from his famous mathnawi the Kliusraw Shirin), 122 by 
various Arabic poets (mostly Tughra'i and Mutanabbi), 6 
Fahlawiyydt or dialect verses, 676 from the Shdhudma, and 
the rest, numbering about 323, by various Persian poets. 
Those by Nizami and from the Shdhndma are quoted without 
acknowledgement, others indifferently. Lines borrowed from 
the Shdhndma are unfortunately not in continuous passages; 
the author probably had in hand a selection of moral verses 
from that book and quotes them at random. Out of the 
total number 676, I was able to trace 526 in Turner Macan's 
edition (Calcutta 1829). As the text of these lines from the 
Shdhndma is one of the oldest we yet possess, I here give 



1) See Rieu's Supplement to the Catalogue of Arab. MSS. in the Brit. 
Museum (p. 634). It is a collection of moral and political maxims arranged 
under 8 different headings. Some attribute it to Abul Hasan Muhammad b. 
al-Husayn al-Ahwazi who was anterior to Tha c alibi. 

MSS of this work are common, but the references in my notes are to Fonds 
Arabe 3956 in the Bibliotheque Nationale. 



PREFACE. 



XXIII 



a list of all those that I have been able to trace, for the 
benefit of the scholar who may some day undertake a critical 
edition of the great Persian epic, based on the best and the 
oldest texts. I shall refer in parallel columns to the pages and 
lines in Macan's edition and the pages of the present book: 



reference to 
Macan's edition 


p 


reference 

to the 
esent book 


reference to 
Macan's edition 


reference 

to the 

present book 


P. 26 


11. 27 


p 


268 


P. 


337 11- 23 


P. 383 


» SO 


8 15 — 17 


8 


228 


8 


350 8 19 


„ 228 


n 46 


8 27 


8 


5 


8 


352 „ 17 


8 6O & 367 


» 


8 28 


8 


69 


8 


378 „ II 


8 388 


» 47 


8 !, 24 


8 


— 


8 


4OO „ I — 2 


8 336 


8 50 


„ I 6, 20 


8 


178 &227 


8 


411 ,. 23 


8 179 


» 57 


8 21 


8 


340 


8 


438 „ 20 


„ HO & 363 


» 67 


8 9 


8 


337 


8 


439 8 6 


8 91 & 285 


» 


8 IO 


8 


367 


8 


446 „ 8 


8 128 


» 73 


8 6 


8 


349 


8 


447 8 4—7 


8 362 — 3 


8 


8 9 " 


8 


340 


8 


459 „ 15—17 


8 264 


» 75 


8 18, 19, 21 


8 


342 


8 


462 „ 13, 18—19 


8 l6l 


. 78 


8 14—15 


8 


50 


8 


467 „ 16 


8 146 


n 90 


8 I8—I9 


8 


335 &388 


8 


— 8 20 


8 38 


8 125 


„ 20—2I 


8 


34i 


8 


473 8 14 


8 


8 145 


8 14—15 


8 


348 


8 


— 8 22 


8 US 


8 154 


8 5-6 


8 


263 


8 


489 „ 6 


» 337 


8 


8 7-8 


8 


61 


8 


504 „ I9—20 


8 38 


B 


8 13 


8 


228 


8 


507 8 2 


8 362 


8 


8 l6 


8 


IOI 


8 


— 8 4 


8 335 & 376 


8 ID7 


8 5 


8 


226 


8 


5" 8 4 


8 6l 


8 175 


8 24 


8 


— 


8 


546 „ 24 


8 HO 


8 176 


8 9-IO, 15 


8 


— 


8 


— 8 26 


8 335 


8 I84 


8 8 


8 


93 


8 


— 8 27 


» 376 


8 


8 9 


8 


5o 


8 


547 8 2 


8 61 


8 I89 


8 4—6 


8 


383 


8 


— 8 2, 4 


8 376 


8 198 


„ 18—20 


8 


228 


8 


— „ 19 et seqq (10 


8 29 


„ 202 


8 25 — 26 


8 


382 




lines) 




8 224 


8 17 


8 


230 


8 


588 „ 6--8 


8 371 


8 


8 15, 17 


8 


339 


8 


589 „ 20, 26 


8 236 


8 228 


8 I, 23 


8 


377 


8 


608 „ 28 


8 I02 


8 231 


8 14 — 21 


8 


358 


8 


684 „ 20 


8 342 


8 243 


8 22 


8 


382 


8 


686 „ 1 


8 


8 26l 


8 I5—I6 


8 


242 


8 


706 „ 2 


8 59 & 352 


8 282 


8 2 


8 


337 


8 


7H 8 n 


8 H8 



XXIV 



PREFACE. 





reference 












reference 


reference to 


to the 




re 


fei 


ence to 




to the 


Macan's edition 






Macan 


's edition 








present book 










present book 


T. 751 11. 27 — 28 


P. IOI 


P. 


1030 


11. 


17 


P. 


268 


» 757 a 12—13 


n 342 


n 


1104 


a 


12 


a 


393 


a 796 „ 19 


a I01 


n 


Ill8 


a 


2—5 


a 


266 


„ 805 „ 12—16 


„ Il8 


a 


1151 


a 


15 — 16 


a 


278 


„ 806 „ i, 6-11 


a 42 


a 


"54 


a 


10 


a 


— 


a 813 „ 22 


a '350 


a 


1 1 $6 


a 


2 


a 


29 


» 815 „ 7-8 


a 90 


a 


1161 


a 


22 


a 


278 


a — r, 25 


a 349 


a 


1 169 


a 


22 


n 


388 


a 820 „ 15 


a 


a 


1175 


a 


IO 


a 


284 


„ 822 „ 24 


a 


a 





a 


II 


a 


378 


„ 824 „ 4-5 


a 340 


a 


1218 


a 


26, 28 


a 


61 


» 825 , 3 


a 341 


a 


1222 


a 


9— 11 


a 


385 


a 832 „ 6 


a 383 


a 


1234 


a 


25 


a 


278 


„ 834 a 6-7 


a 347 


a 


1239 


a 


1 1 


a 


122 


a 836 „ 22 


a 128 


a 


1242 


a 


7-8, 10 


» 


61 


a 847 „ 27 


a 59 


a 


1268 


a 


16 


a 


122 


a 859 „ 2 


a I30 


a 


1304 


a 


16 


a 


262 


a — a I 3 


a 102 


a 





a 


17 


a 


59 & 386 


„ 860 „ 15 — 17 


a 285 


a 


I330 


a 


H 


a 


146 


a 881 „ 6-8 


a H2 


a 


1356 


a 


5 


a 


61 & 122 


a 891 „ 8 


a 162 


a 


1357 


n 


11 


a 


122 


a 893 „ 15-16 


a 


a 


1358 


a 


12 


a 


42 


a 897 a 4 


a 173 


a 


1361 


a 


4—5 


a 


278 


. ■ — , »8 


a 162 


a 





a 


6-7 


a 


42 


„ 905 „ 4—6, 8—10, 




a 


1404 


a 


23 


a 


134 


15—17, 21 


a 148—9 


a 


1411 


a 


20 


a 


363 


» — » 12—13 


a 112— 3 


a 





a 


21 


a 


278 


a 924 a 16 


a 146 


a 





a 


25 — 26 


a 


66 


a 946 „ 3 


a 336 


a 


1412 


a 


1 — 2 


a 


— 


a 965 a 22 


a 230 


a 





a 


18 


a 


265 


„ 969 „ 25-26 


a 155 


a 


1414 


a 


6 


a 


159 


a 98l a 23 


a 23O 


a 


1418 


a 


5 


a 


380 


a 986 „ 14 


a 261 


a 


1421 


a 


5-7 


a 


228 


a 988 , 8 


a 263 


a 


1422 


a 


5 


a 


157 


a 993 a 6-7, II— 12 


a I30 


a 


1423 


a 


14—15 


a 


90 


a 996 » 4 


a 


a 


1424 


a 


3—4 


a 


284-5 


„ 1001 „ 6 


a 


a 





a 


12 


a 


367 


„ 1003 „ 26 


a 148 


a 


1426 


a 


11, 17 


a 


1 12 


„ 1004 „ 1 


a 


a 


1427 


a 


12 


a 


368 


„ 1015 „ 12—13,23—24 


a I30 


a 





a 


14, 15 


a 


398 


„ 1028 „ 4—6 


a 204 


a 


1429 


a 


9, 11 


a 


375 


„ 1029 „ 26 


a 


a 


H55 


» 


26 


a 


293 



PREFACE. 



XXV 



, reference to 
Macan's edition 


reference 

to the 

present book 


reference to 
Macan's edition 


P 


reference 

to the 
resent book 


P. 1455 


11. 


19, 25 


P. 245 


! p. 


1651 


11. 


3—4 


P. 


91 


„ 1456 


55 


I 


. 178 


55 


— 


55 


6 


55 


177 


n 


55 


II — 12 


„ 154 


55 


— 


55 


7—9 


55 


274 


55 


55 


2—5 


,5 295 


55 


1654 


55 


25 


r> 


91 


55 


55 


13 — 14, I8—I9 


„ 235—6 


55 


1655 


55 


23 


55 


297 


55 


55 


6 — 7, 9 — 10 


„ 241 & 377 


55 


1661 


55 


9 


„ 


— 


n 1458 


55 


13 


55 38o 


55 


1 67 1 


55 


23— 2 5 


55 


169—170 


55 


55 


24 


. 378 


5; 


1673 


55 


11 — 12 


55 


347 


n 1460 


55 


2, 6 


„ 179 


55 


1676 


55 


17, 19 


55 


109 


n H7I 


55 


2 


55 


■ 


— 


55 


11 — 15, 20 — 22 


55 


46—7 


55 


55 


3—5 


„ 176 


l 
1 55 


1677 


55 


8, 17, 20 


55 


39i 


n J 509 


55 


28 


„ 260 


1 » 


— 


55 


26 


55 


135 


» 1510 


55 


2 


„ 261 


55 


— 


55 


27—29 


55 


120 


„ 1515 


55 


21 


„ 378 


55 


1678 


55 


3 


55 


39i 


5, 1535 


55 


13 


,5 59&4I 


55 


— 


55 


4—5, 7—8 


55 


134-5 


55 


55 


9 


., 66 


55 


— 


55 


16—18 


55 


368 


5, 1587 


55 


4 


,5 184 


„ 


— 


55 


19 — 20 


55 


365 


„ 1588 


55 


19 — 20 


„ 260—1 


55 


1684 


55 


11 


55 


157 


* 1589 


55 


2—3 


„ 184 


55 


— 


55 


12—13 


55 


367 


55 1590 


55 


14 


„ 177 


„ 


— 


55 


17—18 


55 


65 


5, 1595 


V 


4 


. 378 


55 


1690 


55 


14 


55 


367 


55 


55 


24—25 


» 153 


55 


1695 


55 


23 


55 


— 


a 1596 


55 


3—6, 9—10 


„ 294—5 


55 


1698 


55 


17 


55 


376 


5, 1597 


55 


9 — 10 


55 184 


55 


1699 


55 


28 


55 


266 


5, 1603 


55 


7, 9 


55 293 


55 


1711 


55 


20 — 24 


55 


204 


55 


55 


12—13 


„ 260 


55 


1712 


55 


2—3 


5» 


— 


55 


55 


16, 17, 20 


55 393 


55 


1714 


55 


6-7 


55 


342 


55 


55 


22—23 


55 170 


55 


— 


» 


9 


55 


393 


55 1617 


g 


10, 12 


,, 184 
„ 169 


55 
55 


1715 
1717 


55 
55 


2 
18 


55 
55 


155 


„ 1618 


55 


28 


263 


„ 1619 


55 


1, 3—4 


„ 170 


55 


1718 


55 


22 — 26 


55 


384 


55 


55 


5-6 


55 339 


55 


1729 


55 


11 


55 


177 


55 


55 


7 


„ 171 


55 


— 


55 


10, 18—19, 






55 


55 


8 


„ 184 








21 — 22 


55 


225 


55 


55 


17—18 


5, 244 


55 


1753 


55 


23—24 


55 


378 


55 


55 


19 — 20 


5, I30 


55 


1765 


55 


5, 7 


55 


382 


55 1623 


55 


27 


„ 175 , 


55 


— 


55 


27 


55 


175 


55 1624 


55 


10 — 11, 18 


55 


55 


1770 


55 


24 


55 


292 


„ 1626 


55 


23—25 


55 


55 


1774 


55 


16 — 17 


" 


— 


55 1646 


55 


15-16 


,5 176 


55 


1781 


55 


17—19 


55 


— 


55 1647 


55 


15 


,5 91 


75 


1784 


55 


27 — 28 


55 


376 


55 1649 


55 


12 — 17, 20 — 21 


„ 91-92 


55 


1785 


55 


8 


55 


69 



XXVI 



PREFACE. 



reference to 
Mancan's edition 


reference 

to the 

present book 


reference to 
Macan's edition 


reference 

to the 

present book 


P. 1787 11. 6—8 


P. 260 


P. 2014 11. 12, 14 — 16 


P. 101 & 139 


ft » 28 


> 69 


„ 2015 „ 23 


» 243 


» !792 „ 5 


» 334 


r> 2023 „ 13—18 


» 144 


n n ll 


„ 29 


„ 2026 , 6 


« 256 


ft 1793 ft 4 


. 378 


„ 2042 „ 10 


n 


„ 1796 „ 18—19 


n 297 


» 2050 „ 5 


» 263 


• 1856 , 4 


• 378 


„ 2058 „ 6 


» 26l 


„ 1865 „ 22 


v 144 


» 2059 „ 2 


H 256 


» 1875 ft 27 


„ 242 


„ 2060 „ 7—9 


n 


* 1877 „ 4 


» 


„ „ io-ii 


» 262 


ft ft 9-IO 


» 155 


. . 18 


ft 263 


„ I878 „ 9—IO 


» 


* B 19 


ft 229 


ft l88l • 26 


n 


n 206l „ I 


„ 260 


„ 1882 „ II. 13 


» 


„ „ 8-9 


ft J 73 


„ 1892 „ 22 


„ 144 


„ 2063 „ 21 


ft 126 


„ I903 „ 28 


» 239 


n n 22 


ft 243 


» J 9I3 n "—12 


B 144 


„ 2064 „ 16 


« 127 


» 1951 « 21 


„ 113 


„ 2080 „ 4, 9—10 


ft "2 


» 1973 „ 12 


r, 375 


„ 2084 n 18 


ft 230 


„ 2014 „ 17 


i, 256 


„ 2086 „ 7 


ft 127 



Lines quoted from Khusraw Shirin of Nizami are not 
so numerous and are happily in continuous passages which 
can be easily traced in this book by looking up that name 
in the index of books. 

The only source of our author's historical information for 
the earlier part of his book has been the work of Zahir-ud- 
din of Nishapiir (see pp. 64 — 5) who was the tutor of Sultan 
Arslan and a relation of our author's '). 

The contents of the sundry sections at the end of the 
book are to my mind not so important as might appear at 
first sight. Of these the two sections on shooting (with arrows) 
and horse-racing (pp. 428 — 434) can be dismissed as entirely 



1) By the work of Zahir-ud-din is meant apparently the Saljuqndma (a 
history of the Great Saljuqs) whose importance as forming the primary source 
of most of the later Persian histories will be discussed later on. 



PREFACE. XXVII 

uninteresting, for they only discuss the lawfulness or other- 
wise of these practices under various conditions, from a 
religious point of view. In like manner is discussed the law- 
fulness of wine in the chapter set apart for it (pp. 416 — 428). 
The sources of all such matter are some of the well-known 
books on Hanaff Law, enumerated by the author on p. 418, 
namely, the commentaries of al-Jdmf-id-Kabir, al-Jdmi c -ns- 
Saghir, Mukhtasar-i- Tahdwi, Miikhtasar-i-Karkhi, Mas c udi, 
the commentaries of Qitdiiri and Mujaz-i-Farghdni l ). The 
medicinal properties of different wines (pp. 426 — 8) are 
verbally borrowed (without acknowledgement) from the great 
Dhakhira-i-Khwdrazmshdhi of Isma c il Jurjani (died 531) 2 ). 

The section on chess (pp. 405 — 416) contains nothing that 
is extraordinary or instructive. It is more or less a repetition 
of what has been so often told both by earlier and later 
writers on chess in Arabic as well as in Pesian — that the 
game of chess was invented in India and brought to Persia 
in the reign of Anusharwan the Just, that his minister 
Buzurjmihr made certain alterations in it and that it was 
passed thence to the Byzantines who in their turn intro- 
duced further modifications. 

The subject of the origin and history of chess being 
exceedingly vast, we cannot possibly do any amount of justice 
to it by making a few superficial remarks. It may therefore 
suffice here to refer the curious reader to a very recent 
book, an exhaustive treatment of the subject based on all 
the best available sources, both eastern and western, entitled 
"A History of Chess" by H. J. R. Murray (Oxford 1913) 3 ). 

The chapter on calligraphy (pp. 437 — 447) is interesting 
as showing the nature of KJiatt-i-mansiib ', a system of con- 



1) See notes pp. 487 — 8. 

2) See Rieu's Pers. Cat. p. 466—7. 

3) The first 393 pages of this book contain the history and progress of the 
game in Asia and therefore are of special interest to us. 



XXVIII PREFACE. 

structing the figures of alphabetical letters on geometrical 
principles, i. e. each succeeding letter to be constructed with 
the help of the preceding ones, so that all the letters are 
related (manstib) to one another. Four different kinds of script 
are mentioned viz, naskli, riqa, thulth and muhaqqaq, and 
in many cases [e. g. in the case of a/if, da/, ra , kdf, /dm, 
mini, nfin, zvdzv and ya), the author indicates distinctive 
methods of constructing letters according to these various 
scripts. 

The section on al-ghdlib w ' al-maghlv.b (pp. 447 — 457) points 
out the method of calculating the results of contests between 
rivals. This method, according to our author, was first taught 
by Nicomachus to his son Aristotle who brought it to 
Alexander the Great, who, on being introduced to it was 
so much convinced of its truth and certainty that he never 
engaged in any war or contest if according to this method the 
result was to be his defeat. Briefly stated the method is this: 

First of all find out, according to the abjad system, the 
sum of all the letters contained in the name of one of the 
two adversaries going to engage in a fight or a match, then 
cast out the nines and seek the remainder in the extreme 
right-hand vertical row of letters in the chart on p. 45 1 ; 
find out similarly the remainder in the second adversary's 
name and seek it in that horizontal row in which the first 
remainder lies. If the second remainder happens to be a 
black letter, the first adversary will win, if red the second, 
and if green they will make peace with each other '). The 



1) As will be seen there are no green letters in the chart. The only letters 
that can be turned green without upsetting the results of the examples on 
pp. 452 — 6 are nine in number, i.e. one red letter in each row identical with 
the extreme right-hand (black) letter in that row ; e.g. red alif in the first 
red ha 1 in the second, red Jim in the third, red ddl in the fourth and 



row 



so on. But this would be unnecessary because even without doing so the 
result will remain the same, for the author tells us (p. 452 11. I — 2) that if 
the two remainders be identical, there will be peace between the opponents. 



PREFACE. XXIX 

absurdities of this method are too evident to be pointed 
out. First of all it is clear that if the same two opponents 
engage in a series of contests, the result of all of them 
according to this calculation will be the same, which means 
evidently that one and the same person will always win and 
the other always lose. Besides, the method of dealing with 
the names and finding out the sums of letters in them is 
quite arbitrary. In the examples given on pp. 452 — 6 the 
author sometimes takes into account the kitnya and leaves 
out the proper name and sometimes otherwise. At one time 
the doubled letters (huruf-i-mushaddadd) are counted twice, 
at another time only once. The letter alif'm ibn or abuis some- 
times taken into account, sometimes left out, and so forth. 

3. SOME OF THE LATER HISTORIES THAT 

BORROW DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY FROM THE 

PRESENT WORK. 

As we have already indicated (p. XXVI supra), the only 
source of our author's information for the early part of his 
history is the Saljuqndma of Zahir-ud-din Nishapuri, who wrote 
it during the reign of Sultan Tughril the last of the Saljuqs. 
The work is not known to exist, but we have reasons to 
believe that it forms the primary source (for the Saljuq period) 
of nearly all the succeeding Persian histories. Besides our 
author, it has been used by Hamdullah Mustawff (wrote 
A. H. 730) and Hafiz Abru (wrote A. H. 830) in compiling 
their great general histories, viz. the Tdrikh-i-Guzida and 
the Zubdat-ut-tawdrikh respectively. Both of them mention 
it as one of their sources ! ). 



1) See page 8 of the facsimile of the former published in the "E. J. W. 
Gibb Memorial" series, and p. 62 of the Collections Scientifiques de VInstitut 
des Langues Orientates du Ministere des Affaires Etrangeres (Vol. Ill, Les 
Manuscrits Persans, St. Petersbourg, 1886), where the contents of the latter 
are fully described by Baron Victor Rosen (pp. 52 — ill). 



XXX 



PREFACE. 



That all these three authors quote verbally a good deal 
from the Saljuqnama is shown by several common passages 
occuring in their books '). The following may be noticed: — 



jjA^a.n 4o\j 



+£'& 



AWL V) 



&y ub 



Z y^£ i \ 



zJC* \WL \ 



■> <T^ 



Li 



l5>^- 



v_A^ -j^L oj)j£ o tfjCil j iY 

.A*.* 43 Aft \ JViJl (5-Xi-Lwj o 

(m u*) ^ 

vill^ jU lJUj b ^i, c5j <5j~ < ? 

Jj> b* iP 5 " ^^r jL • • t5j 

-Xi (J,y.*».A *j> u_s\Cj . . . ^y A j^ 



(lif ^) is— A 

^JS jk~ jb* ^* J J^T J ' r 

(tit u^) l5V 
I 

; U uiUj t y^Jy>. j\WL < v 

^y- ^*jm-j 1&\j (5; vdill\ 

(m 



i) M. Blochet is of opinion (see his Pers. Cat. of the Bibl. Nationale, Vol. 
I, p. 277) that the Rdhat-us-Sudur was directly used by Hamdullah Mustawfi, 
but I think it to be unlikely, for he enumerates all his sources in the Pre- 
face of his book and I see no reason why he should omit the name of 
this work. 



PREFACE. 



XXXI 



^ ^1> A jjj^ ^-A*! oVWL ^ 

•jwl." • J*.) fljj^ C**«>j J> W2.3 Vl 



u* 



V 



jj>j ^ J J *° ^w 



^c ^a ^ ^ S^ S±* 



■>* ^ jjJ* 



ALL 



oyr 



5jSa» j » •• -.a^a.; \jdlU ^V^a.9 
A.^a.9 jU : Vl ^^ll yt-j ^\ 

(ioo-ioi ^) -x-5" 









*. dl ' 



4..I&. 






The Zubdat-ut-tawdrikh of Hafiz Abru being rare, is un- 
fortunately not accessible to me, otherwise it would have 
been interesting similarly to notice such passages therein. 

The Tofrikh-i-Gnzida and the Zubdat-ut-tawdrikh have 
both been popular sources with all the later Persian historians 
who therefore have indirectly used the Saljitqndma. Among 
them the authors of the Rawdat-us-Safd, the Habib-us-Siyar 
and the Tcfrikh-i-Alfi deserve our notice, for these books 
are very famous alike in the East and in the West. All 
these three authors have, in their Prefaces, acknowledged 
the use of the Tarikh-i-Guzida '). The traces of this common 
source of theirs are to be found in all of them, but it may 



i) M. Blochet thinks again (toe. cit) that the Rdhat-us-Sudur has been the 
direct source of Mirkhwand the author of Rawdat-us-Safd, but here again I 
have to disagree with him on the ground that our book is not included in 
the long list of his sources which he gives at the beginning of his book. 



XXXII 



PREFACE. 



suffice to compare, for interest's sake, a few passages from 
the most famous of them, the Razvdat-us-Safd, with those of 
our own book : — 



JJ 



-X**aJ\ 4£>\j 



O 



X+A.W <>&, 



J (S 



^cjj J,, a: 



f*& \ 



(5>: b>.jj < \ 



<-£^ oW > d-^ ^J 



C* 



^ ^ ^*j^ i>^ _/0.?- 



l>* jV J^ *^ fc & "^V J jj 



(»IA^) ^ 



LT^ 












i j^ * -XxXOwa 



LT^ 



*/ 



^ 



JuWj <j.'\c> j -A. 






J~>) SB- 



'S -W 

-/ t u * ^ ^ ^- ^^ ^ 



^— jU;V^ ^ lS^nWt- f b* 

| ^3%-^* *iJj V|\^ai vljVJii J J 



PREFACE. 



X X X 1 1 1 



^i\i J^U? ^j* j u--iUs 
(HA^) 



V -/' 



oVvw\ , ;L> »>■ b> 



IWL diit Ju*l c5j^ c-^t 

J, <>■ ki-wO C? (_£y3 V) d-v-Oft>- 

JS-> o ^° I* ^j)sj w 



VWL £\ 



>uu\ clJ. Xo ; 






o ^^i-x^ iSjfe* v c*jL>jJ 



jjU 



**■ <j Ja* c?y jVj^ 



^\_X^ ^ «^U* 



or 



■<T\ 



-U. ,JW? 



^J 1 



^j ^— ■ j J J^ -/— Oj \jj>\ 



A 



V, 



^ lJ J 



\&\ 



Other works that are directly drawn from the present one 
are the following: — 

(i) A compendium on the history of the Saljuqs appended 
at the end of a manuscript of the Ta rikh-i-Jahdn-Guslidy in 
the Bibliotheque Nationale (Supplement Persan 1556). Of 
this compendium an account is given by Mirza Muhammad in 
his Persian introduction (p. XU>) to the 1st volume of that 
book, and I think I cannot do better than summarize his 
account *): 

This compendium, of which neither the author nor the date 
is known, omits the whole of the Preface (37 ff. of the MS. of 
the Rdhat-us-Sudur) , replacing it by a short Preface of only 
half a page. It also omits the whole conclusion (25 ff. of the 
original). Lastly, it omits the poems, proverbs and other 
extraneous matters. As regards the historical portion of the 
text, however, it is preserved intact, without the change, 
diminution or addition of a single word, so that in so far 



j) See p. lxxv of Prof. Browne's English translation of the Persian introduction. 



XXXIV PREFACE. 

as the Rdhat-us-Sudiir is a historical text, this abridgement 
practically supplies a second codex . . . '). 

(2) A treatise on the Saljuq history entitled al- c Urdda 
fid Hikdyat-is-Saljiiqiyya of which also an account is supplied 
by Mirza Muhammad 2 ), some of whose remarks I again 
quote: — 

"The second of the abridgements of the Rdhatu s-Sudtir is en- 
titled al- c Urdda ft 7 Hikdyat-is-Saljiiqiyya, and is by Muhammad 
b. Muhammad b. Muhammad b. c Abdu'llah b. an-Nizam al- 
Husayni al-Yazdi, who was wazir to Abu-Sa c id the last effec- 
tive Mongol ruler of Persia (reigned A. H. 717 — 736 = A. D. 
1317 — 1336), and who died in A. H. 743 (= A. D. 1342 — 3). 
For an edition of this work, which was compiled in A. H. 
711 (= A. D. 131 1 — 12) .... we are indebted to Dr. Karl 
Siissheim, who published an Oriental edition, with Preface 
and notes in Turkish at the Ma c arif Press in Cairo in A. H. 
1326 (= A. D. 1908), and an Occidental edition, published 
by Messrs Brill of Leyden in 1909, containing the same text, 
page for page and line for line, but with German Preface 
and Notes. This abridgement, like the last, omits the Preface, 
Conclusion and digressions of the Rdhat-us-Sudiir, but, 
instead of leaving the historical portion of the text untouched 
in its original form, the compiler has thought fit to rewrite 
it in a very ornate and artificial style .... In his Preface 
he omits all mention of the Rdhat-us-Sudiir, though he 
mentions as the basis of his work another history of the 
Saljiiqs extending to the reign of Sultan Mahmud b. Muham- 
mad b. Malikshah 3 ); yet as a matter of fact he has, apart 



1) I had an opportunity of going through it during my short stay in Paris, 
and I noted down several variants which I have given in foot-notes. The 
name of this compendium is not known, but I have called it (perhaps erro- 
neously) " Risala-i-JtiwaynV throughout my notes. 

2) loc. cit. pp. lxxv — LXXVI. 

3) Dr. Rieu conjectures (Pers. Catalogue of the Brit. Museum, p. 849 col. a) 
that this basis of al-^Urdda (erroneously written ^al-^Irdqiyya 1 in his MS.) is 



PREFACE. XXXV 

from the excisions and verbal alterations above mentioned, 
exactly followed the RdJiat-iis-Sudiir , so that we have here 
an example of plagiarism precisely similar to that presented 
by the Bazm-drd, which, pretending to be an independent 
work, is a mere reproduction (with some verbal changes) of 
the Lubdbiil-Albdb of Muhammad c Awfi" ] ). 

(3) The section on the Saljuq history in the great Jdmi z - 
ut-tawdrikh of Rashid-ud-din. It is exactly like the compen- 
dium described above, with the difference that there is added 
at the end of it a Supplement [dhayl), treating of the reign of 
Sultan Tughril, by Abu Hamid Muhammad b. Ibrahim who 
wrote it in the year 599 or, as he himself says, eight years 
and two months after the death of the Sultan. I have used 
this section of the Jdmi z -ut-tawdrikli as a second copy of 
the Rdhat-us-Sudiir for the historical portion of the text, 
and it has been of great help to me in clearing up several 
doubtful readings 2 ). 

So far as I have been able to ascertain, Rashid-ud-din has 
not acknowledged the use of this book, and unless he has 
done so in some other portion of his history which I may 
not have seen, this omission on the part of a great historian 
like him is remarkable if not unpardonable. 

the Saljtiqnama of Zahir-ud-din. This is quite possible, but we may remark 
that the Saljtiqnama was written during the reign of the last Sultan Tughril 
and therefore must have been brought down to that time and not stopped with 
the reign of Mahmud. But in any case there is no doubt that the author of 
al-^Urdda has tried to conceal his plagiarism by making a false statement. 

1) Dr. Siissheim thinks (p. xxvii of his German introduction) that al- c Urdda 
served as a source to Mirkhwand in compiling the Rawdat-us-Safd^ on the 
ground that several similar passages are to be found in both. This, in my 
opinion, is not a sufficient ground, for Persian historians as a rule quote so 
freely from one another that it is always possible to trace similar and even 
identical passages in any two books on the same period. Besides Mirkhwand 
fully enumerates his sources in his Preface, without mentioning al-^Urdda^ and 
we see no reason why he should have omitted it if he had made use of it. 

2) A part of the Jdmf-ut-tawdrikh (a MS. belonging to the "E. J. W. Gibb 
Trust") containing the history of the Saljiiqs, was kindly placed at my disposal by 
Pro f . E. G. Browne. It is a modern copy but clearly written and fairly correct. 



XXXVI 



PREFACE, 



(4) A Turkish version of the present work which forms 
part of a large MS. history entitled Tawdrikh-i-dl-i-Saljiiq. 
This history, compiled in the reign of Sultan Murad II 
(1421 — 145 1) is anonymous, and is divided into 3 parts, of 
which the first contains the legendary history of the ancient 
Turkish tribes translated from the Jdmi c -ut-tawdrikh, the 
second is translated from the present work, and the third 
from Ibn-i-Bibi's Persian history of the Saljuqs of Asia Minor. 
This last part has been published by Prof. Houtsma in his 
Recueil de textes relatifs a Vliistoire des S.eljoucides (vol. Ill, 
Leyden 1902), from the Leyden MS. No. DCCCCXLII l ). 

Of the Turkish version of the Rdhat-us-Sudur several other 
MSS. are known to exist, viz. one at Dresden, another in 
the Asiatic Museum in St. Petersburg and three more in the 
library of Topkapu-Serai in Constantinople 2 ). 

(5) Lastly we may make mention of the Tcirikli-i-Jahdn 
Ard by Qadi Ahmad GhafTarf who wrote it in 971/1563 — 4. 
It is not, like those mentioned above, derived entirely from 
the Rdhat-us-Sudur but the author probably had it before 
him while writing. Compare the following passages: 



j*J^a}\ 40 \j 






V oW£> 



5 <-r-*y~ djy^ A-iSi* (jViaL* 1 \ 



1) It is by a mistake that in the Leyden Catalogue (vol. Ill, pp. 24 — 5) 
the entire work (i. e. all the three parts) is attributed to ar-Rawandi, a mistake 
the cause of which has been explained by Houtsma in his introduction (p. VI, 
note 3). 

2) See p. 53 (note 4) of the Ostturkischc Dialehtstudicn by W. Bang 
and J. Marquart published in the Abhandlungcn d. Kdnigl. Gcscllschaft d. 

Wissc?ischaftcn zu Gottmgen {PhiL-Historischc Klasse) Berlin 19 14. Prof. 
Marquart tells us (loc. cit.) that an edition of the Turkish version of Rdhat- 
us-Sudur was begun in Constantinople a few years ago, but did not appear for 
certain reasons. 



PREFACE. 



XXXVII 



(I To ^) ^ iWW 



v& 



^ l3j^V: 



«1 

Jui^ ^ ^l> A* J^ j\5aU < V 






J p*^" y — - « 



4&s*\ Ac j t ^ii\j <uJ\i, iioW 

l* 5 )-^ iWW i*A ^/jj 

(Or 141, f. 89a— & jCJ^j- J^ 
(f. 896) cuita <0»^» f\- v_jjVj< ^ 

^ 3 J^: JA* ^ A '^ lA-^T j ^ 
JA* J^. ^;\ ^ A*- ^U^ 

(f. 90a) v2-wi\j 



JA* uO 5 " j> J^ j* Cr-^ 
K^SJ\ JV j c-A. JU*\| 

(f. 906) ly *J\&\ J A;*. 
^JAijfy* [if*.-!?- ^J_j>,] oUSi* t o 

(f. 916) J^, ^IV; AiU- 3^ L v r .V^ 



XXXVIII PREFACE. 



4. ORTHOGRAPHICAL AND GRAMMATICAL 
PECULIARITIES OF THE BOOK. 

The MS., like all those of the 7th and earlier centuries, 
has the following peculiarities in spellings: 

1) \ is not always marked with a medda (\). For the sake 
of uniformity I have supplied it everywhere in the printed 
text. 

2) \ is nearly always omitted from ,ju-\ and x\ as well as 
from other words when joined to the preceding words, as: 

c(^\ dlj =) J^J <(a;\ Ai=) -x-jbU 

{ ( jji\ *L =) .VaAu < ( A<\ j~*=) A*£r- 

\ is also omitted in kunyas as: 

3) u_j, rr, j, ii are written uniformly for , • ? -, j and iS 

respectively, with no distinctive marks. 

4) 4.. is sometimes written for ^ as: 

i ( 1 T ^ \ O \ ^j?) y y>- <, thr JAi *z t (j^ ( r\ =) J^i <\ 

5) j (dhal) is always written for j (dal) in Persian words 

(a) when the letter preceding it is vocalized (mutaharrik) 

as in Ju^>, '^j^i J^yJo-, ■**-*» 5 anc * 

(b) when it is preceded by long vowels a, /, u as in 
jAA j j i>V» 3 Zy«J> j J^ , JA*f , A ^i \ etc. 

But when the preceding letter is quiescent (sdkin), it 
is written j> (without dot) as in j\„, ^Jj^ -O" etc * 



PREFACE. XXXIX 

6) *3 is sometimes separately written instead of i in nega- 
tives as : 



7) j and\ are both omitted in the word J\ as: 

8) o (final) is generally not written in compounds formed 
with *>. and o as: 

di;U < dJuU*- <(<<;U =) dbW «(4^T=)j|\ ((^ =) -^ 

< (O ^a> =) il^flj < (^o^ - 
^>. is sometimes written for *>. and ^for S'. 

is omitted from *>. and o when joined to the folio wine 
word as: 

1 jy>- O — ) j^fc. < (-Lilt a>. =) i^W c (i-iS <>. =) o-i\>- 

9) * is omitted after prolonged \ as: 

io) j is written instead of * when followed by another (5 as: 

1 (S^-^ l iS i ^ m l (Jj3 = ) tSOJ l (d^ ~) cf^ 
ii) • is written for \ before pronominal suffixes in words 
ending in , and also in second person singular in the 
present perfect tense as: 



XL PREFACE. 

12) An additional ^ is written to denote indefiniteness in 
as : 

13) When two words are joined in such wise that the second 
begins with the same letter as the first ends in, one of 
the two similar letters is sometimes dropped as: 

t (otj cu^=) Cf-J^ i {jjj J> =) jj^ 
The following words have archaic spellings : 

(M.nv) .VtiUVi i {\\ i \ Vi) \*\kA c jU^*. 
Other archaic words have been noticed in the glossary. 
Of the grammatical peculiarities I have noticed the following: 

1) The prefix > is used with negatives as: 

2) fj is used before negatives as: 

3) Final is omitted in forming plurals with Vfc as: 

<(W"<1> =) V^-l> t (Vto<uU. =)-■ V^»W 1 (VfcoAp =) Va«ip 

4) The perfect tense is used in a contracted form as: 

5) V. is used instead of » as: 

(Hi a?) a;\o^\ (<uj =) 4.- V, l^lO^ j\i 

6) ^V* instead of \ J( jUj\ as: 






PREFACF. \|.[ 



(Vo\) JuUjl, AzS^ t 



( \ ° • ) V O^Ji y lt* 0^^>. JtX 



7) ^ is once used for fj: 

8) --y> is used for ilyb (i.e. <0 jt>) as: 

(\ <Vo^) Ju*^ u^t>\ ijy^ ^y> di»\.\>. hy> jVC 45 J^J> ^.^p 
(i \ y ) iji ^\T iao ^yj \ r^J -yi 

9) \j is often omitted after direct objects as : 

j^}y_ =) I ( I 1 t \\Y) ±S\±y ±fX JL di. L^ Jc5^a3 j. 

1 (\ j0 U- diu =) < (1 : ro-i) *f*~y» j,y~* \jl diC 

<(A<V"ir) /cA*\ cfcjf dLW j\ U 4^ jjjy W ^VU- 

<(>jy U V, UaL=) 

Notice also the following usages of \j 

(n <yy) jU£ \^ v,4 (\) 
(r«m) M»\ ^ ^ t^> \^ (r) 

10) The word -^ is often omitted from proper names as: 

a) J U) . J) 

Notice also ^V, ^jj 1. *. Zangi of Pars. ♦ 



XLII PREFACE. 

u) The plural of Ja>. is used once as VfcJcs>- (p. S7 1- '/)• 

12) The final ^ which usually distinguishes the subjunctive 
from the indicative seems sometimes to be employed 
also in the latter mood, as : 

<(T u- ^ u°) l 0>y =) &*y. *f <^ °j\ jbV* 11 

In the second passage, however, the verb (j\\ may 
perhaps be regarded as a subjunctive. 



i r\\ l - 4Al\ Ju£ > 4Ji\ J.*aJ &W A^a &jt J A«!l\ 

<o.y <o.o to.? ci.\A d^ ci.'Xo titi iiAl < j- Y «- 
<11V iil. dAr <- (Add. 7620)^^ W t tfJu«*- oUi* 

« j- \ r . i - ^ j^^J jW^\ j\^ j jj\^l\ 4a> 

<- (Or. 6645, Or. 5320) ^ C &? liS j£d\ ^LJ oVi^l jy\ 

<1A? <iA. <iV° 

< ri • • < ^T \ A < ^U i - ^«i\) ^ ji\ l*-L 



(1) A History of Chess, by H. J. R. Murray (Oxford, 1913) - 
408n, 4:lOn, 4:11 n, 414n. 508. 

(2) A Literary History of the Arabs, by R. A. Nicholson, - 
233-/. 

(3) A Literary History of Persia by E. G. Browne, - 99n. 

(4) The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate by G. Le Srange, — 
284^. 

(5) Persian Literature under Tartar Dominion by E. G. Browne, 
- 425^. 



^ ^ 



v^ °Vi 



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viv <m tm iwa <rn «m <?.. <nt <ru 

Voy <?o"l t^-oo <Vor <<MA f^iY itVl<?io < Vii 

ry. <nt <nv <m <no «m <rv «nr<m 

VA1 <?A° <Ui <VA? tt-Ar <VA\ <m <W < VYo 

m <w <m c vio <m <nr <n\ <m <vaa 

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v-.. J11 <ru <m <- ol# 



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<nt <rn <r.t «- juJ 
ju,i «vi. <m <nr <r\o <n. Mi <ta <- cA^lA* 

iiAl till t^V. < W t?oY 



' <S^J J *•'• "A; ' <i^* 

< Tio i — (^-X£ j^) •j - x -r - 4^ J.* 

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<iai <m ^rxy t^rtr t^rro Mir < in <- ^T 

tflA tV-iA tfJLO iV.At YW i- j\-\AiUX' 

Mir < - oV^ j j «oW ^i~/~ 

<W <m «rio (TAY diY <t.i <U <TA<- (jVj>) o^CT 

<iA"i «^tyy <rry <rrw ua <Uo <ry <- **f 

* i n ■ « - 4*^ 



0-K- i-Ju^aM j JAi\ ^ J\Ji\ ^~jj> 



iAi <m <m ^yo <nv <m <?io <nr t- ^ tou> 



£.m <no <rvt <m ^w <m <n. <tai <r. < - c*>j$ 

(.\"XV t — («^-^.) ^cUai ^^; 

( \ \ r t — (<5j) <ij^ ol/"^ 

l?\o <r\a iYAV i or <?. i- f 

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< TA1 £- v-A&S. 



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<io <ii <it til «i. (U(ty^^n did. c- £\j. 
iW\ t\\? i \.\ t\\ iV? i*\r cox too toY to\ <i1 
<IVI t\y. i\M\ Mio dii dtl tin «ltt MTV 

<rrv <rn <rio ( n. c r. a <r.o <m mai mvo 
<m ^m <m <ru <rt. <nv «ni <rit <rn 
«nr <toi { fu <tii ^io <Vir «m <m <ttv 
<tAi <tvx <tvv £tvi «w <ty. <no «ru. «nv 

£i.t ti.r.ti.l «TO <tU <nv <TO <tAA «M1 

tiir tioi tiii tiu tin (i\i 
< lit « 1.1 coo tor ( n £ - o^b* 

MH (TA i IV « I- «- ^J- 
i to I < tii £ TV1 ( - «-lS £ *Sy^ »^e 

< ivi < - ck 

(j- 1 11 t- o^— > 

<iAt <tu i iai £ i At- ivv t- (J&) S^ 



<iVt t IVo < lVt £ 11A at dl < r ^ < U 



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tWMAo Mil c \.V <l. t- f U 
(MA i — ojVx'iuJ: 

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o\i— o \V t — s~ifi 
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l\Y\ i- Uu^e 

m i wy i ru t nt i v. o i - Uli < tfj 4*1* 

< \ . 1. f — < o^*^ 

fiir<- ((5;) cui^ 

< iAY t - Cr***) Vi 9 
36 



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VvU cUA i m «fn <rn <l.i <?. <TA <-(cAfj) u^J 

m <m «rA"i <ry. «ru <nr mi. ^iru-^L 

<uv ^ai <ru <riy <rv\ <rto 

< AA ^ Ay ( — -xj^c- -x*«- 



l5^4- J ^ 4 < o^y?^- 



C 



ru <- oVkL 



c \ Ao c — jW^- 



oo\ ^y\ j jiUi ^ j\Ji\ ^^ 



°y t - (oWO jf 



~j 



£ lot < ^-\ . ^ (rl.. t — i^r 1 *"^"' j jy &^. l £y** •*** 

c Til ^-Jiyy dAo^; < J^:> 

^ir <rvi. <nr i rnr <- ((53) ^jj 

« 111 £— £ jVp 

<Yi t- ^o 

<m tut c'uo ^rrv t-^.* 



MAM. t - ^ j j 
Mil Mil MW coo £TA Jo t\\ £ U Mi M. c- fJJ 

tilt ctil ti.A c IYI 

£ PI A £ TiO £ — 4ji)J £ oy.jj 

£ \n t- wj 

Mil £^\n MM £ l.o £ l.i Mi .or £f. ^TA £- £^3 

tTtO £^1 <m £ \V0 £ Wi £ \Y. C lOO £ UV £-liV 

ju <m <ru (Hi <tav trvv <tyo <rti <ri? 

£ m £^Yo ^Y. <n~l t^il t?iA tTlY iTU tY\o 
tn\ £UA £^A1 tV-Ar (Ul (U. <m £^YAt^YV 
.ttAl tiAo <iAf <iAl <iYo <iol <ioi tf\\ <HA rf\o 



L yj\ ^ j,u\ ^ ^\ ^> 



ooA 



fVAA tW <?V° l?V. i?T\ fPti cT.^ MTt <- r jj^ 

tiAi ^ivr <m <m <n. 

iof (ol «io c ft t TA MA Mi M . c- (j\~\>>-) oM^ 

il.id.r i\.T M. . t IV Ml t^o <U <A1 'oo 

Mio Mil Mi? MH MTA MH i \T? (Ill Ml? 

MA\ MVo MVi Mvr MVI MIA Moi Mil MiV 

crii ^riv <rrv trio j.o mii mao ma? MAr 
tivo tivr cii"i tiVA tin <m < m <rio 
crv. (Tiv- <ni ^rot tfoi (Too <r.i « m j- o^jy- 

jUo iUI (TAV <TAi 

c i o o < — .*>)■**" 



£^-\i^ £- i5$\ i£/ a* ^ £^W^ 
m^A- <m<?i. <WM.i<-o^-> 

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■vio ^rrv £- U? dlo> £(jy^) ^r &\* 

cTlV £~ *!<>-> 

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£ m < - jr^ -^ 

£^V0 £- (O^)^ 

£ ^nr £ - jUj j 

Mo"\ MoV* £ l^T £- <Ji £(j^> oU) ^T_ ji 
£ TAo £ f Ai £ - ^J*^. *% j* £ J^\* j-i 



<m <rn ^rv-o c- o^V/! 






i r . t — ^jI>> 



Uo «- 



°X 



MAmrAMr. t ay <- oy^" 
t riA « — j\^/ 'ryr 

ivit «m <rry <i.a <- ol^ 

<f\Y c- a\o 
t IVY t- o^- 



riY <rv\ <- o^> 

< Va * - o^ j j ^ S*f l j-^ 

<Vtt £ \V"l j IV. <- \L>- 

c iAi « m < - l£ j!^ 



^U <A1 J- 0) ^cM 

r^y cm <m fir. <rio mia <ta <- (^k) ^l 
< m t w « rAy « ta"\ £ rtr < nr < n i < rn 

< ru <- oW* ^W obv* olA* ^A 



<?1A <m <HA <rii JHMII i-JW 
iiyi < I \V >A1 ^ AA cAl <TA i^T? did. <- V;jT; 

Myy c- V$) 

■ i\A? t \Y? Mil c- -^v 
« TAi < TAV- t TV-^ 4- i-15 < c^Jj 

£ \ . . £ — iLl^Sj 

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\r . i— -uis ( 



f^ 



t l.i til '^U t- ^*4 

(HI (U. iffY <- jAk-j 

<ur <v»i (II. d.n d.AM.Y^i.id.o <oi <- Au> 



t^\oi ( \oV < 111 < 11 



in <iro <ivi <irr <m 



<rrA <rry <rri <r.o mh < iai mao myi ^\y\ 
£ ru t nv <nr <ru ju <rry <m as. <rrt 
<m <m <m iTAi <ta? <rT\-ny «m trio 

tlYo tVll j«. tUt «^Ao t^Al ^Af t^AI 






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MoV Mio Mir Mil Mi. MV1 dU «£»n «IU 



m cf.Q < it\ < nr t n\ 



<c 



\oA < \o"\ Moo 



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<ua<vai i?a\ ^m jni«nf (fto ^n ^^ 

<iA° tin tin ti.T tiM «i. v . tW 

i j-^Al Mir i - o/j^ 
i yf f — ;u\ jx. 

MAV «-^ vlL3>; {JjJil 

MT1 MTA <- <T^i\ 

tiir MAY MV-V tir t- <J\Sai\ 

t^-iyi <- o\y> JvfA j\ c<£l 



^\>^JAi^jf^— ^ 






<no <?YA t \i. if. c- <.\ 

> — ' 

<£-rn c rrx < *v* <ni < i.i <oi c^y.«» 

i^-rio cm en? <nr <m <rvo <rvr <rrr err. 
<ru<no ( ru cm <tay ^ta^ <nv <rn crir 
ft-oi (^oo « via <nr <m ^u ttto t^r ivw 



i.r (i. . <m (W <nr <ru 



<m 



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di d? cir <oo 4 VA cf. <H ilA<" (cM>4~) l5^ J^ 

ai do <u i£tr c^tr cAi <ai <Yt av di do 

MnMlAMUM^YilllM.M.rM.. (U^Y 

doA dii d.. cm ct.i <ta. <ry\ <rro cr.i 

ciir til. 

<£-m ct.y cV.. c r^^t cru <taa <tay <rn <r\y <jW 

inAtruti.ic^. <-je^ 

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iAr < \iy i-j*L» ^jj c tSjki!&\ (dl :j U; ^Ir^j) dl W 

<m iivr «ir. <ui < n < l? <- ^ls .jujs ^\ 
va- <ryy <m <vyo <rvi <- At-j^ ^ <o^> lH> 

< ? AY < r Al 
« AV < — oj>4~< a: lK# 

0) Howorth, Sir Henrv. 



00 \ 



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< Ai _ A\ «— o\^\ oVi «j^ft 
i A • t — i5^ 4iio. < dJAU Jut- q, AiA 

0) Houtsma, Professor M. Tli. 






JW}.\\ J[~\ ^.~>j& 00. 



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<7-m < — J»!&> v_^-U> ijVSC- oi^ ^^ 
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t tA? < 1VA < iVV < - J^ i J\»A) i5L,&>->> 
<iYl <iY. ;iof <ro ^A <- jpl c j^ is-y 

t 1 . i < 1 - r t AY i — 3y^~ oj .**& ts?y 
iVX? i rii j— 3y«.~* jVWL (5^\ j\ < ^.jJ\ ^w < jlA^J* <5V 

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tiYi tioi <i.V <m t \~\\ t \ol 



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<rr o £ — j>*.«.~*.« ^jWV*« ^^-o- <^«Sw^ 



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0) Ross, Sir E. Denison. (0 Rnfus of Ephesus. 

34 



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^ c(f. 53^ ^ jiJil > f U <_, uHj-i- 0) ^ ^ ^L,) 

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33 



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j^» <(n<iil Cai\) «.xi <:>jf j£~>; i{-\ c'W Jfe) «<>f 

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\ ^ ail oV r ^ j\ <JtJ i^, «S3^ j^ <(t t ^) ^O JU 
< >te±J>(j yj^s-j j\ ^.>fo- JV*p o c-.-\ o3^i (tax) Jp. j\ jy> 

<(v<ry.) rr ^U^W 

'(to lose a game =) o^l ^ 0° fit. : A «i\o) a;U 



ojj\j cjWIW^o j oViidSlft^i o\ 



t ^Sj>- 6 j c-J. ^c (\o-M) .j^ 



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'(i^Yn^ Jj- £» «i$-^ Jojfl\ ^ 



kjW jaj j^.^i«\ ^ Lri 3_^V, (frontier =) ^i> j ^« j\ 
o3 >' <j^ S*^ 0^ ^ < (frontier commander =) o-^L* Je^« 

v j >) j\j ^^ ^*> -vW ofdr*. Jj>t^"j> 0°<irt) Jj>f 

j\ ju. jfW s(to build =) ^jjTUo ^c (A iYiiol) jij> 









Madar al-afazil l ) defines Hra as 'that piece at chess which 
is interposed between a King and a Rook to protect', but in 
the Arabic Mss. it is used rather of the whole position of a 
file dominated by a Rook, in which the check is for the 
moment covered by an intervening piece of either colour be- 
tween the Rook and King. We have accordingly such ex- 
pressions as 'to move into Hra' (to play the King on to a 
file where there is the possibility of a check by discovery 
by the removal or capture of an intervening piece), 'to expose 
to l ira } 'the position in Hra. 

Ja\ j, ^j\^ j» t(f. 186& ^\J jyJs) «JaW-j jp-L ^L. 
<(f. 213& Caj.\) <o^ ^^ 4i ^^j O^-lPj ol>^ J O^- 

l^J^\ J\ = j^*! < or ^ ti* c . <^"0 ^j ^-^ ^ '°-^ 

jj^j^ ~Uo «,a_jWAj .... ;l ^\ >\ fJ ^ jy^\ 

-x« ^ \ _ ^VdxA^ &,t <(r\ i \rv) *A; jV»j^ o Jv ilj 

X ) See J. R. A. S. Vol. 13 (1852) p. 49. 



DjjAi «J-AstU£-w2.A • C-i\.dS ^JK'JSiji C.A 



j\ Jy*a.I<>. jj-J '(cAV 1 -) ^-^ J^aA; v_xiisi A; <(t cAY) lj\.> 7Cf^> 

'(early morning) *j ex~~« ^*i c^~\ ^UA ; •**<? \f \j\ -*x& 

c J^Xi A^j^y [ yj\i ^y£ 4^=3 <_£ Ji". ^ JU ^oU i(\\ i?\) j\^> 

: ^ i?\A :rr (i(|i) Jq, ^t ^j ^C jV^i < (security =-) 

<(r- aA° = W.oiA : n <1AA : :T- <if. 



< >z~*v zyry \&*J j\ dl g* jj> JlS^ < (a < viy) c^j jt^U 
•u^-u Jek (Sir Denison Ross) ^j ^uj ^ v_-wo\ J^\i 

^«1 (to collect =) o*jf>>j£ q\ &** & *z~»\ jx^ dl*^ 

viLL, ^Uy ^ jCl! ,y,\ ^ (0- y^^> £-^-) «J)* 
JkzS IjT^c jwj O^A lt!. < ^ c? ct-i^» (Kudatku Bilik) 

*£=* ^A w \ ^ ^J ^j\, j\ jy t (\ i?.r) *iW j ^i> 

*$j> o^: l> to *r-*V? ^ JJ u^ifi ^l o\j J^V' ***»&! jyt »^ 

MM ^ frro ^) ^kl» ^l- ^ ^ \ #» .(^1.1) \^ 

: ^\ Jo 

'/?*a (from the root c ariya to be naked) is a term pecu- 
liar co chess, occuring in Persian as Hra .... The Persian 



tbljJI oVAiU 3 Aj>-^li j\ r -\) «w^.i\: ^u «u~j <uJ\.i ol>^" O^ 



<0-_^ J^/ oy j\ j\ <u~a>\ cuj *u£i . 



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j < -XJLV; 1 *feji Jo J (5-X«j j ^>-X;t\ J ^ ^y>- ^^jiC V>i.\ j J 






3jJ>V> OV5<A.i2.-v2.« * Ov<D C-VJ&^J O . "\ 












o > 



,V)j^ -u 4, t >z~*\ U& 4^*3 ^O^ = (i nil .• t <rv) cJl 



(state correspondence =) jl^j ^ oUVC ^) (idl|) o\lAkL 
private correspon- =) ^U^ cA^ ^«-i «c£j ) y>-\» jJ> 
l (\-* u° &jj* -£-* \jyv° ^ ^ j W <J^lrO < (clence 

t (f. 55« {5Ju«*- viAAi*) «? jj\ex;U (5^. V- 









■S, ,i>- \>\ * ^\ 






^ t5^ oW ^ ^iS» cj^j ^-5Cl I ^ (n <y) ^x_5 ^-jQ 



oj^V' oWlW.*2^ j oUS JS^jbji 



A;jV~ >^**a) J^ly j\ j JT j^-j j* j.~ j> j J^j <ua*J oily 

< ^j y ^ j^ = ( \ r < r \ r ) j^j^- 
<(i <rn) U-. lj^o *, ^ "d, <(ur u* u^ u-^ 3 ^\) 

\jj^» j \fyl J^-UiJ f* _>> * A-^r ^^> oW ^^ 4A) jj 

US') -L -X'o^> ^> o jVJk;\ ^ <£-y jj» i xe> = (y i \Ai) Ju- 



<\ LiJbj y> t(over and above =) 9J) % = (A t yT) ^ ^ t^- 

A".j^s U j\ j\ o-v-Jy^ j\ £\ j* c-oV. j Ain'> u-j^ajo j\ >V **-w^aj 

£^i Jc y\P = J^jU (l < Tir) J^V-J\ (3La>- ^H £ — 

A%> ^*c <(\- fV^-o : \a <rr) o^ (5jK T ^ j j» <3-S"^r- « — 



4.*>\£> ojj aAS ^J ^ol* J.«^l J Ju'O^jS (jj J\^tU«l BUO J>j J j 
% j\gu.~\ 4i\> 4jtU.\ j 4 '"^'J^ <3 * l£** l) «**«■»' ^vA-N O 

i/i ((J^j I; Mil : \Yi\tf : ^ «i <r MTT : WIT 
j ^U A, V.) « C5 ^uA;j» V^Lby ^ JS^^ t(lltlYl) cr^ ; ^3 

\^\ j JciV. \jW (5^0 ^L^i 4j ^y J j\ ^ j^> ^L-j >* ^ 

*fVa> j£$\ ^U>- ^ A>-i \^W ^Vl) <-<,Uj\ Vft^f S>J- V.O ^i-^Jj 

< « r^-) Ir s-AJY\ u^li 4, Jv ilj c (li-t V jjp >i ^«^ 

t (a do) ^Li ^W *A; c^M-V**- 

^■■^ >y df>A \fij ( ^j w>% is**. (° <*• • : n « ri^) >J 



: \ 1 ( -\y : o i0 y) \ ~ ^U^L-fesr -fcjt 4-J Jry iij <(Caj\) 

<(n< lU •• n<ii° : H<AA : r aA 



< (before long =) ^^i a ^ ^ (i < m) j^j^ ^ <u t <Xoj 
t j,\j ^*o o^ jo lH tf Az j i(r < \va) **V; oV-j^ * 4; 

<(tY MYl) 



i ( V V .) j^V. o* ^Ujj j\ aTjV;^ ^*c JW ^ ^ (n < in) jWj 

<(\ <\o~\) u-J ^ jJL\ ( (r <i) 

i (*j\yL.\ <^J*\) \y>yr j p-^ A^< ^k\\ ^ 4***^ 



j^» (gathering =) o^;\ ^ Jcoj\ ^ ( Y tTlA : I <ri.) c-^j 

**=— «r jt« J^ gW^ o^ ^f-Vjft f^- J J**j vj** °jj^ 

\ (f. 45« Gai\) <<±J>jtjZ \fjh &jj» (f. 5* ^Jus- cAAl.) 

: li MAA : V MAo) jfcj j&Jls iO*<"W) ^ V, Jr a. "S, 



£ JvU>5 (jiii = ( 1 i i \ . ) O&S fa 



4.i\c» jjj ^^a.« vi-XJl,* °jj£ ^j£>j*a}£- o^-U-o jjj^^ (J^* j^ (£*^ 






5j.A"> oWlW^a.* j oU^ l^Sj.^ o. y 






< c-»^ J-X^ ^yf j J^ «U5j JotS (r £ 1TA : * * (■ ITT) < (j-X^j 

' — »> 

jjp <ujsi j^ «jAjLj» ^»i j\ (5-Xaia J.«i ((to ferment = 
i^Jx>\>> (V^u\ j \^-\^>. j \~\j o^-^j l«^>ifip- ^^ c? J******* 

£ u-Ao ^j^ j^* j^H '(!¥(/ C^) *-is\-w^ 



^ot» (a single thread =) jo^ *si, dL ^c (n <r"Vt) <j\: 4ii, 

<*,» (r (Yov : n< iya : n av) j^ ^t ^ ij^ ; U. 

£«JCXJW oAj JJ^J ; <U,LjJ 4_Jxj\j\ isJg *S*tj» £«Aii jV.J 

< (fij^ ***** 

i (tribute =) A ^*c (ifdlo) o^ 
'(cA*^) ■*/■* °^ ^ ^- j^ ^i$y iSjfc is** (\* cYM) ^j 

V'j j lA>^ j v^j ^^ 4; W> o" j J>> ' -^ (populace =) 



o . \ oj JV. c-\>^2.<a.< j oUf viX*^ 



i{^ tW\) Fr *UjV\ sJ^jj 4., d, <(« swindler » =) 
«it» ii->-) ffjjjus^ju ^\ jl) U Ai 4i«r j*» c(\- i\?a 



i (of a double possibility =) i Jj\, o«5jL *-*J jC* 

to waver =) ^ : J.V. ui> ^ ^ t (\A <Pir) 0^4^ j^ 

< (in mind 



«( n «TA. s ° « I . A) Ui o\ijs* *« ^j < O-Vj oW j A ~ 
<(tr <m : rF^Y?) 1 r •Uytf s/jj (° <rrt) jp £J\5 

UT^Jiy ^v j^ < ( r <*t^ : 1 1 r . y .* rr < \ t i) r ^ 

ci"i ->j^ ti*- Cft* «J^s» a J W ur-r^ J J J "j-V^" 
^X-*^ <0 ^yo« ^^ Jo jfci j\ j t O-Vj >"V j 0^ f^* c 



6jjV*» olstua.-^ j cJ\.h> JScJbj* 



t(last of all =) ^\ 4«-J^» nSj*-\ &*J> (j^i 
< AiV. eM«j j\jj «SX JiiL; e>^ ^V° «S -^.y 

<(°liu* Jtri £j^) c< -^ j/-^ J-r ai*J^ V,» <o 3 jj* 
a full =') I I" ^ j\ ^Vc ^*li> *£L = (A t \ • t) <^> ^j £ — 
4— »\t> ^uo j j\ ^r* j> rfy cr-jj (5jVx~j» (suit of clothes 

^>l; 4.A"' _^i~) «-XiVj (J^i.- j> ir3 j'J* o^ (j\ c-*£; 3 o tXJt^i 

'(AY u^ Lai\) «^L^J <ulc> c— -> j j j\ j\» <(iA u^ 



J^" 



^ y> (to follow, to pursue =) < jjjT^W < o^j -?-** j-> 
^Ul ^*Ui» t(f. 65& j\^5 ,/wS) «Jo\ Ij j j j J \j ^_j> ^o 

t (f. 141& Cai\) «^J ,'A^J 



i.\\ ojA> oWia*a* j oil) ^y 






j\^j^fli < (tat ^ j^-: ^V.) «cu^ c/^iy- liW j\ ^^.±- 



k^JjJ j* >j\—i -i-AJ) {(parler, tenir conseil =) ^J\ 

£ (« ( j. > .Z^\^» 

c? 4&\jj m; _j ^J\ ^ ^.^ j^L ^j ^W ^jji f\? ^y 

\^ ^Uv\ ^.U <0<yio : \i^ro) j& ^jl ((^ni) 



£ (f. 302& Ca,\) 



o^j>1; oWJa^a.* j oVi> J\jbji it A 

j\^>\ £ \;J,V'.J ^fl>3 J\^ lJ^ j^ ^'W JulVj 0^\j jjjj (3^ 

Jolc* JaJ Oca V. j3j V, ^ o, w J j jL^-^ j JcjS Jjj 4.L, 

I (£ jV oULa.) 
p*JL\ *_, jy 4; c(Or. 473, f. 676 jl^ Ot-M J\fol^) 

< I £ in (jo ^{i u*^ 

< (f. 91*) «^UV, a^jiH 



'^1 exi oy l^Ly j\ J to be humiliated =) 
^jU 3L- k^Ju i (r « m : ° < m) ol^ u-ji> < — 



llV oj^Vi oV^lU^.* j oUT JXj^s 



Js'^^ = ( * r < r i . ) oi^s=!- 



t i- =; ( i r < \ v ) S^ 



yr 



<<5 u^ lS ] 



dl>\ j\ jjiu V- 3jj \jj\ JuLj j^j ^^ ^ dJj^ j\ ^jisu ^jq 

^viW jj^tW \jjtjj -^"'^jy*- pvi 3Ui> Ja\ %£ji\ j\ ^Jm» 
Oj»5L^ CL^-j ^u^ rr l5^W> £j^) 'O-ljU, 



t(A <m) jt* £j fa <0* <°i : n <*-i : a <v) 

^J*~ j &/? t£*$ (*W Ov- V) us-«^y>- iv j 0° tiro) v^^^- 

: 1 f Y\\ : i tllo : 1 c)oo : t 400) <5^>->^ ol* J ** ^j 



«Syb» tOyM 4_J^.U = J^) ^ iJA;\ ^j\*j t ^»C (t <TV) |*-j Vt>- 

*y. \j^ y> «(r"\r u*> 1 r «UjV\ s/jj) iVj 0^ ^I. ^ ilir 



32 



djj\.'« oUik-^ 4 ^US cfAJy 



m 












< (inaccessible =) <(jl*^) 
t(l < on : n i \ ?.) ^. ^k 4, jv -i, <(yo ^ i$jy^^A ^o) 

JB 4£ = ci^J 3 *~Jft (^> ^J *s) Ji J? 3* <C* <*«) O^Jy 

t(? birch-bark =) <(cA*,:) aJ^ \ JU.\ ^ \fj -~\ c*j 

JJ^j (j? ^VC icO c^U \j\ rJi jloj j ^ <0 d-,~\ ^L-ji j\ ^ 

£ (rt y* <jU\ J vfj\) v e j u ^ ti v. >' ^ i,\£ 



(VT\ 



uP lt? ur- 



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b^ o^ ^j^ 3 j ^ A ! c>"-- ( Y ^^) A - u ^ oW J.^ <cA> 



t a;j> 



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l^a fijjl. oWlW^.^ j oViS dSibJ) 






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(t- Yi u^ r ^ s-.UV\ viU) 



(greetings to him!) 



J 



< A. 



Vi ^ 



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V-fcjkj j\ £** &} <(to conspire =) o^P ^— ^ j c^- j 

<(lace, fringe =) (( ^>) 

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Jr^j ^1^ ^~tA ! 



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1 tiUi" (5j\j -X**- 

yv-viu jilUv/ * \.U.>\ y-Jk* 

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|3 O^-jV^ 5 C* xr-^O^-^ 

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AO iy&£~\\ *\~\ sl*~y& 

A"l oW^~ j^tf^ J^ 

tV . . . .' dl)y^> \LL 

in %*J\ J\ VWL 

iro oV^Tu vwl 

1U . ,ViS3u a: Jj^l VlaL 

\or A£L & X*£ \5aL 

\ iv ,U& a . ^u- VkL 

r . a oUSi . iU= ^ J>^ jVkU 

m oliSl* > jtU* # *y** o^~ 



^yrj = 4; 

(Stowe, Or. 7) ^^ j:^ &* ^x\\ ^aJ <^V^ s_x,j = ^ 

j\*ax^-\ jl^Y\ c_-A\\\ OiJil j\J S^-^mW £J£ j o^a.'^ OtJ = jj 

(UA1 o^) Wy gt (5j^J\ -all ^\ 

^ = 

(Arabe 3956) ^l, ^ ^Vji) j^\ ^ x\J\ J^ = j* 



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